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The most up to date collection of scientifically based health facts.
Includes simple to understand definitions and complete references


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P

Pancreas: (also see Diabetes)
Prions:(see Disease)
Polycystic Ovary Disorder
Pregnancy/Infant Development

Protein
Prostaglandins: (also see Essential Fatty Acids)


Pancreas: (see Diabetes)
 
It is now known that insulin instructs the body not to burn stored fat. So there is a compound effect from consuming excess carbohydrates: sugar is converted into new fat and existing fat is not metabolized. Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, pg. 936, Arthur C. Guyton, John E. Hall, W B Saunders Co., January 15, 1996, ISBN: 0721659446.
 
99% of the pancreas is devoted to handling the digestion of fats and protein while only 1% is devoted to handling sugar. Reference: Scientific Foundations of Biochemistry in Clinical Practice, David L. Williams, Vincent Marks, Butterworth-Heinemann, September 1994, ISBN: 0750601671
 
Complex carbs, having increased pancreas workload: Reference: Dutto, S.K. and Hlasko, J. (1985). Dietary fibre in pancreatic disease: effect of high fibre diet on fat mal absorption in pancreatic insufficiency and in vitro study of the interaction of dietary fibre with pancreatic enzymes. Amer J Clin Nutr, 41, 517-525.
 
Reference: Moser, E. (1989). Fibre types and their physiologic effects, In Dietary Fibre: Chemical and Biological Aspects, (ed. D.A. T. Southgate, K. Waldron, I.T. Johnson and G.R. Fenwick), pp.91-102. Royal Society of Chemistry, Special Publication No. 83.

 
Insulin levels will reach 10 – 25 times above normal to get rid of the excess glucose (sugar), and continue to stay elevated even 2 to 3 hours after the time carbohydrates are eaten. Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, pg. 977, Arthur C. Guyton, John E. Hall, W B Saunders Co., January 15, 1996, ISBN: 0721659446.
 
Excess insulin stimulates overproduction of Cholesterol: leading to elevated blood levels. It reduces the elasticity of arterial walls, increasing the risk of plaque formation, and causes the kidneys to increase salt and fluid retention – all of which increase blood pressure and heighten risk of heart disease and stroke. Reference: American Diabetes Association's 59th Annual Scientific Sessions, June 1999. And Basic Medical Biochemistry, pgs 25, 26, 475, 512, 566, Dawn B. Marks, Allan D. Marks, Colleen M. Smith, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, August, 1996, ISBN: 068305595X.
 
Vitamins impaired by diabetes. "Evidence that diabetes millitus favors impaired metabolism of zinc, copper, and selenium in chronic pancreatitis," Reference: Pancreas 2001 Apr; 22(3):299-306, J. Diabetes Complications 2001 Mar-Apr;15(2)97-102, "Effects of diabetes on vitamin B6 requirement in experimental animals," Diabetes Obes Metab 1999 Jul;1(4):221-5.
 
The system responsible for Pancreatic Insulin release is called the endocrine system.The cells of the pancreas are called the islets of langerhans - these produce Insulin.They make and secrete hormones that help the body break down and use food. Named after Paul Langerhans, the German scientist who discovered them in 1869, these cells sit in clusters in the pancreas. There are five types of cells in an islet:beta cells, which make insulin; alpha cells, which make glucagon; delta cells, which make somatostaton; and PP cells and D1 cells, about which little is known. References: Mabley, J. G., Belin, V. D., John, N. E., Green, I. C. (1997) Insulin-like growth factor I reverses interleukin-1 inhibition of insulin secretion, induction of nitric oxide synthase and cytokine-mediated apoptosis in rat islets of Langerhans. FEBS Letters 417, 235-238

References: Belin, V. D., Mabley, J. G., James, R. L. F., Swift, S. M., Clayton, H. A., Titheradge, M. A., Green, I. C. (1999) Glucagon decreases cytokine induction of nitric oxide synthase and action on insulin secretion in RIN5F cells and rat and human islets of Langerhans. Cytokine11, 585-592

Polycystic Ovary Disorder:

Polycystic ovary disorder [becoming rampant in young women] associated with insulin resistance [result of overeating carbohydrates and trans fats]. References: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th Edition.  Eugene Braunwald M.D., Anthony S. Fauci M.D., Dennis L. Kasper M.D., Stephen L. Hauser M.D., Dan L. Longo M.D., J. Larry Jameson M.D., McGraw-Hill Professional, 16 February, 2001, ISBN: 0070072728

Pregnancy/Infant Development:

Research has shown that omega-3 fatty acids are crucial for normal development (1).  If the mother is deficient in omega-3s then the nursing infant is going to be deficient, which means the child's nervous and immune systems may not develop fully. A study at the Mayo Clinic found that of 19 pregnant women eating a standard American diet, all 19 were deficient in omega-3 fatty acids (2).
References:
1. Simopoulous AP. Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development. Am J Clin Nutr 54:438-463, 1991.
2. Holman R, et al. Deficiency of EFAs and membrane fluidity during pregnancy and lactation. Biochem Nat Acad Sci 88:4835-4839, 1991.

 
Prions: (see Disease)
 
Prostaglandins: (see Essential Fatty Acids)
 
Prostaglandins help keep blood platelets apart, avoiding dangerous blood clots. Prostaglandins help to support a healthy cardiovascular system because of this. References: Fats That Heal, Fats That Kill, Udo Erasmus, Alive Books, 01 January, 1999, ISBN: 0920470386
 
Protein:
 
First Class: Meat, Fish, Eggs, Cheese.
Second or Third Class: Beans, Soy, Grains, Vegetables, and Nuts.

Amino acids (from protein) can’t be stored (as body fat) in contrast with glucose (from carbohydrates), nor are they excreted. References: Basic Medical Biochemistry, pg. 648 & Essentials of Biochemistry, pg. 220. “amino acids are used in the cellular structure and don’t go to excess body-fat – in fact, carnitine (a non-essential amino acid) is required for fat-burning.
 
Protein should come from meat, fish, eggs, and cheese: Reference: Landmark book, “Man Alive, You’re Half Dead!”, Daniel Munro, M.D. Bartholomew House, New York, 1950
 
Most niacin in grains has low bio availability (it can’t be used by the body). Reference: Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach, pg. 16. Dawn B. Marks, Allan D. Marks, Colleen M. Smith, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, August, 1996, ISBN: 068305595X

Protein is good for kidneys. Reference: Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach, pg. 653. Dawn B. Marks, Allan D. Marks, Colleen M. Smith, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, August, 1996, ISBN: 068305595X
 
Children’s Protein Requirements:Children need one-and-a-half to two times more protein per pound of body weight than adults--and babies need three times more!
 
In a Type 1 Diabetic (see Diabetes:) high blood sugar levels cause proteins to be surrounded by glucose molecules. This is called Glycosylation. This causes abnormal protein spillover in to the urine. Normally blood proteins are repelled by the kidneys pores and don’t overflow into the urine. Also, these are blood proteins, which have nothing to do with dietary protein. Reference: Dr. Bernstein’s Diabetes Solution, pg. 316., Richard K. Bernstein, Little Brown & Company, May, 1997, ISBN: 0316093440
 
Protein is fine for your kidneys. Glutamine, which is protein derived removes toxic ammonia from your blood to protect you. It converts the ammonia to urea, which is excreted through your urine. References: Protein Power, Michael Eads, M.D., and Mary Eades, M.D., Bantam Books, New York, 1996. Pg 188.
 
References: Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach, pg. 653. Dawn B. Marks, Allan D. Marks, Colleen M. Smith, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, August, 1996, ISBN: 068305595X

A 150 lb. person requires a full pound of protein per day for normal bodily processes. References: Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach, page 648. Dawn B. Marks, Allan D. Marks, Colleen M. Smith, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, August, 1996, ISBN: 068305595X

60%-70% of protein eaten is used to fuel energy of digestion, only 30%-40% is left for body structure — like muscles — and system function — like enzyme production. References: Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach, Dawn B. Marks, Allan D. Marks, Colleen M. Smith, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, August, 1996, ISBN: 068305595X

 

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