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The most up to date collection of scientifically based health facts.
Includes simple to understand definitions and complete references


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E

Eisonanoids: (see Prostaglandins)
EFAs:(see Essential Fatty Acids)
Endocrine system:(see Pancreas)
Energy: (also see Essential Fatty Acids)
Enzymes: (also see Milk or Lactose)
Essential Fatty Acids: (also also see Energy or EFAs)
Essiac®
Exercise: (also see Metabolism)
 

Energy
:
 
High-energy fuel: 1 gram of fat produces 2.5-times as much energy as 1 gram of carbs.
 
Carbohydrates stop you from using the best fuel available, the fat stored in your own body. Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology.
 
Enzymes: (see Milk or Lactose)
 
Carbs are largely broken down when chewed (see Carnivore-Herbivore-Omnivore). Protein digestion takes place in the system. If not enough protein is consumed in the diet this causes the enzymes needed for its digestion to be depleted. This is why a vegetarian has trouble digesting protein. Slowly introducing meat back into their diet will replenish the enzymes needed for healthy digestion.
 
An enzyme called alpha-amylase initiates starch digestion by breaking down starch (complex carbohydrates) into sugars. This release of sugar alters the taste of food.

• Lactase ·digests lactose (milk sugar) into glucose and galactose
• Maltase ·digests maltose to glucose
• Amylase* ·digests starch (complex carbohydrates) to glucose
• Invertase ·digests sucrose (table sugar) to glucose and fructose
• Proteases ·digest protein into free amino acids
• Lipases ·digest dietary fat to a variety of end products

References: Biology of Microorganisms, Brock, T.D. and Madigan, M.T., Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1988.pp 383, 396-399.

References: Schauf, C., Moffett, D. and Moffett, S. (1990) Human Physiology: Foundations and Frontiers (ed. Allen, D., Times Mirror/Mosby College Publishing, St. Louis) Chapters 21 and 22.


Essential Fatty Acids: (also see Deficiency, Fish Oil or Nerves)
Click here for "The Scientific Calculation of the Optimum Parent Omega 6/3 Ratio"
 
EFAs are fundamental to proper nutrition. Our bodies use EFAs as the building blocks for cellular growth, which plays a central role in feeling, looking, and performing well. Your body can’t make EFAs; they must come from the food you eat or from nutritional supplements. References: Biochemistry and Disease, Basic Medical Biochemistry Fatty Acid Trafficking and Transcriptional Control of Genes Regulating Fatty Acid Transport and Metabolism.
 
 “We know that EFAs support heart health.”  Reference: 2002 EFA Conference.

Fatty acids and higher lipids are essential to the structure and function of cells and organisms. These compounds include structural components of biological membranes, mediators of signal transduction and transcription, and physiological regulators. Fatty acids are also the preferred energy source for the heart and it is estimated that circulating long chain fatty acids provide 60-70% of the cardiac energy requirements.  Current evidence indicates that several classes of  conserved transport proteins, enzymes, and transcription factors participate in fatty acid metabolism and gene regulation. Using yeast and bacterial model systems, the proteins involved in fatty acid transport, activation, and transcriptional control are being defined at genetic, functional, and structural levels. These investigations include identification of unique genes and proteins using molecular genetics; characterization of mammalian gene expression in yeast and bacteria; and biochemical analysis of protein structure and function.  This work will result in a better understanding of how lipid metabolism is coordinated to meet the nutritional, structural, and regulatory needs of cells and tissues.  It provides a foundation for understanding and treating diseases resulting from deficiencies in fatty acid and lipid metabolism including atherosclerosis, cardiomyopathies, obesity, and diabetes. Reference: Laboratories:Paul N. Black, B.S., Ph.D.Professor, Education:B.S. from Colorado State University in 1978 Ph.D. from University of Vermont in 1983.
Reference: Concetta C. DiRusso, Ph.D.Professor Education: Ph.D. from University of Vermont in 1982

EFA conversion inhibited: Bad fats, lack of minerals, lack of vitamins B3, B6, C, E), viruses, obesity, diabetes, aging, and rare genetic mutations can inhibit omega 6 conversion. Reference: Stephen B. Edelson, M.D., F.A.A.F.P., F.A.A.E.M. The Edelson Center for Environmental and Preventive Medicine
 
Essential Fatty Acids naturally decrease blood cholesterol levels. Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, pg. 873.

Omega 3 fights colon cancer in laboratory studies, according to graduate student Abgela Jordan and colleagues at J.W. Goethe University, Frankfort Germany. “The growth inhibitory effect was most prominent in rapidly proliferating [cancer] cells. They seemed especially effective against COLO-320, the most aggressive of the two cancer cell lines, halting all growth within 72 hours of exposure. This inhibitory effect appears to stem from ‘both growth arrest and aposotsis [death of cells].” Reference: Reuters Health, May 24, 1999.

Brain synapses have higher levels of DHA than most tissues. Reference: Nutrition and the Brain, Vol. 8, 1990:2.
 
EFAs:
 
Omega 6– LA – body makes into the derivatives: GLA, DGLA, AA. - polyunsaturated – safflower, sunflower, corn.
 
Omega 3– LNA – body makes into the derivatives: SDA, EPA, DHA. - super-unsaturated – flax, hemp (fish is alsoa source of omega 3, but it is mostly derivative based and not the ideal form for what your body needs).
 
Proper EFA radio: "Parent" omega 6 to "Parent" omega 3 = 4 to 1
 
Anachidonic Acidis the 3rd EFA – non-essential. Reference: Stephen B. Edelson, M.D., F.A.A.F.P.,F.A.A.E.M. The Edelson Center for Environmental and Preventive Medicine.

Essiac®:

(An herbal cleansing blend) consists of four herbs that grow in the wilderness of Ontario, Canada. The original formula has its roots in native Canadian Ojibwa medicine. The four main herbs that make up Essiac® are Burdock Root, Slippery Elm Bark, Sheep Sorrel and Indian Rhubarb Root. These four herbs may help normalize body systems by helping cleanse the blood and purge toxic build up. Reference: Essiac® is a product of Resperin Corporation, http://www.essiac-info.org/

In 1937, John Wolfer, M.D., director of the tumor clinic at Northwestern University Medical School, treated 30 terminal cancer patients at their clinic. At the end of a year of treatment, a panel of 5 physicians at Northwestern wrote: “Essiac® prolonged live, shrank tumors, and relieved pain.” Reference: Reclaiming Our Health, John Robbins, H.J. Kramer, Inc., POB 1082, Triburon, CA, 1998, page 271.
 
Exercise: (see Metabolism)
 
Reasonable exercise helps raise basal metabolic rate (BMR) and therefore the rate of ‘burning’ energy. But remember, it takes a lot of exercise to burn off a significant amount of calories, and if you have any carbohydrate before or after vigorous exercise, the resulting insulin response will effectively block any fat loss.
Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, pg 871, Arthur C. Guyton, John E. Hall, W B Saunders Co., January 15, 1996, ISBN: 0721659446.
 
Only under extreme physical exercise does a muscle use glucose. Most of the time, muscle membrane is only slightly permeable (open) to glucose. Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, pg. 973, Arthur C. Guyton, John E. Hall, W B Saunders Co., January 15, 1996, ISBN: 0721659446.
 
For a real endurance event, one can expect fat to supply more than 50% of the required energy after about the first 3 to 4 hours. The body starts off using mainly glucose/glycogen for energy and only gradually shifts to increased fat-burning (this is why it’s very beneficial to avoid carbohydrates before exercise when attempting to reduce body fat). Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, pg. 871, Arthur C. Guyton, John E. Hall, W B Saunders Co., January 15, 1996, ISBN: 0721659446.
 
Growth hormone increases protein syntheses in all cells of the tissue, and increases use of fatty acids (coming from excess body fat) for energy. Glucose utilization is decreased, which means we burn stored body fat while exercising. Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, pg. 936, Arthur C. Guyton, John E. Hall, W B Saunders Co., January 15, 1996, ISBN: 0721659446.
 
“…thus an excess of Carbohydrates: in the diet not only acts as a fat-sparer, but also increases the Fat: in the fat stores. In fact, all the excess carbohydrates not used for energy or stored in the small glycogen deposits of the body (less than one teaspoon worth) are converted to fat and stored as such.” Reference: Textbook of Medical Physiology, pg. 871, Arthur C. Guyton, John E. Hall, W B Saunders Co., January 15, 1996, ISBN: 0721659446.
 
The more glycogen you store, the more bloated you become. Every single pound of excess glycogen adds three pounds of water. Reference: Nutrition For Fitness & Sport, pg. 106, Melvin H. Williams, WCB/McGraw-Hill, January, 1995, ISBN: 0697101452

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