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Includes simple to understand definitions and complete references


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S

Salt
Serotonin
Skin
Soy

Soy and Infants
Soy and Sex
Sugar: (also see Carbohydrates)
Sweeteners
Syndrome X


Salt
:

Stomach acid requires chloride from salt. Reference: Body Fluids and Electrolytes, pgs: 20-22., Norma J. Weldy, Mosby-Year Book, November, 1991, ISBN: 0801654017

Serotonin:

Carbohydrates (sugar) increase the levels of both beta-endorphin and serotonin in the brain. These brain chemicals create feelings of calmness and even euphoria. The trouble with this is the more sugar eaten, the more the brain has to compensate for this “excess” by shutting down some of its beta-endorphin and serotonin receptors. This creates a sugar sensitive system, where after the sugar high, comes a sugar low, which causes negative feelings, like depression, and cravings for more carbohydrates. A person who is sugar sensitive (addicted to carbs) has less ability to say “no” due to the effect of this chemical imbalance in the brain. Brain Serotonin, Carbohydrate-craving, obesity and depression. Reference: Wurtman RJ, Wurtman JJ. Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Clinical Research Center Massachussetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA.

Skin
:

When EFA oils are applied to the skin “…there was penetration and incorporation of their (EFAs) constituent fatty acids, into structural lipid of the epidermis. As the oils were triglyceride forms of the fatty acids, it is clear that they were actually metabolized by the skin…” “…the applied oil is metabolized by the skin and linolenic acid is incorporated into structural lipid.” What this means is that used topically, the skin actually metabolizes EFAs. Reference: The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 64:228-234, 1975, Vol. 64, No. 4, Colin Prottey, PhD., Peter J. Hartop, S.S.c., and Martin Press, F.R.C.P., The William and Wilkins Company.

“EFA's maintain youthful, radiant skin by preserving the lipid barriers between the skin's upper and lower layers. They are also actively involved in replenishing collagen and elastin in the dermis.” Reference: 1 Cunnane SC. In: Flaxseed in Human Nutrition. Cunnane SC and Thompson LU, eds. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press, 1995, p. 123.

“Essential Fatty Acids help hydrate and increase the skin’s moisture content.” Reference: Pepper, G. Nutrients for Healthy Skin, Hair & Nails. Metabolism.com Web site. 2003. Available at: http://www.metabolism.com/news/2001-12-04/. Accessed April 11, 2003.

(With a deficiency in EFAs) Skin becomes rough and inflamed with a poor wound healing capacity. Reference: Wright S. Essential fatty acids in clinical dermatology. J Nutr Med 1:301-313, 1990.

“After cutaneous (topical) application of sunflower-seed oil, which is rich in linolenic acid (omega 3), to their (3 patients previously shown to be EFA deficient and suffering scaly lesions) right forearms for 2 weeks, the level of linolenic acid in their epidermal (skin) lecithin was markedly increased, the rate of transepidermal water loss was significantly lowered, and the scaly lesions disappeared. No such changes were seen in their left forearms after cutaneous application of olive oil (rich in omega 9)…” Reference: The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 64:228-234, 1975, Vol. 64, No. 4, Colin Prottey, PhD., Peter J. Hartop, S.S.c., and Martin Press, F.R.C.P., The William and Wilkins Company.

Just about any type of dermatitis can favorably respond to EFA supplementation. Topical application along with oral supplementation may speed the effectiveness of EFAs. Eczema, psoriasis and acne all have been shown to respond to EFA supplementation. Reference: Wright S, Burton JL. Evening primrose seed oil improves atopic eczema. Lancet ii:1120-1122, 1982.

Bittiner SB, Tucker WFG, Cartwright I, Bleehen SS. A double blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fish oil in psoriasis. Reference: Lancet i:378-380, 1988.

Reference: Downin DT, Stweart ME, Wertz PW, Strauss JS. Essential fatty acids and acne. J Am Acad Dermat 14:221-4, 1986.

Skin disorders and problems such as atopic dermatitis or eczema, dry skin, psoriasis, increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and impaired epidermal barrier function is associated with deficiencies in GLA (Omega 6). Both oral and topical administration of GLA has been effective in reducing these as well as reducing redness and erythema due to UV radiation and improving healing of wounds. Reference: Melnick B, Plewig G. Atopic dermatitis and disturbances in essential fatty acid and prostaglandin E metabolism. J Amer Acad Dermatol 1991;25:859

Reference:
Campbell KL. Fatty acid supplementation and skin disease. Adv Clin Derm 1990;20(6):1475-1486.

The topical administration of borage oil has been shown to be very effective in preventing and treating inflammatory conditions and skin disorders such as eczema and dermatitis in both animals and humans. Reference: Campbell KL. Fatty acid supplementation and skin disease. Adv Clin Derm 1990;20(6):1475-1486.

Reference: Frithz A, Tollesson A. Essential fatty acids in preparations for treatment of eczema. Sweden Patent No. 460762. Nov. 20, 1994

In lab tests it was found that artificially induced inflammation was inhibited on mouse skin through the topical administration of borage oil. Reference: Diezel WE, Schulz E, Shanks M, Heise H. Plant oils: Topical application and anti-inflammatory effects (croton oil test). Dermatol Monatsschr 1993;179:173

Elias has reported that a gel containing 1.5% borage oil significantly reduced the TEWL of the skin of hairless mice maintained on EFA deficient diets. Elias P, as quoted in Goldberg RL. Reference: The Compounder's Corner: Exotic claims. Durg and Cosmetic Ind 1993;Jan:40

Infantile seborrhoeic dermatitis, a common condition in infants also known as "cradle cap", has also been successfully treated with borage oil. Reference: Tollesson A, Frithz A. Borage oil: An effective new treatment for infantile seborrhoiec dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 1993;129:95

Deficiency of EFAs in many species is manifested early on as skin changes. Skin becomes rough and inflamed with a poor wound healing capacity. Just about any type of dermatitis can favorably respond to EFA supplementation. Reference: Wright S. Essential fatty acids in clinical dermatology. J Nutr Med 1:301-313, 1990.

Topical application along with oral supplementation may speed the effectiveness of EFAs.  Eczema, psoriasis and acne all have been shown to respond to EFA supplementation. Reference: Wright S, Burton JL.  Evening primrose seed oil improves atopic eczema.  Lancet ii:1120-1122, 1982.

Reference: Bittiner SB, Tucker WFG, Cartwright I, Bleehen SS.  A double blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fish oil in psoriasis.  Lancet i:378-380, 1988.

Reference: Downin DT, Stweart ME, Wertz PW, Strauss JS.  Essential fatty acids and acne.  J Am Acad Dermat 14:221-4, 1986.

“Healthy skin depends on adequate amounts of lipid, in particular certain polyunsaturated fatty acids called essential fatty acids (EFAs), for moisture, suppleness and smoothness as well as to prevent skin disorders. The most important polyunsaturated fatty acids for maintenance of healthy skin and for the alleviation of skin disorders are the essential fatty acids of the omega-6 family.” Reference: Ziboh V, Miller C. Essential fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids: Significance in cutaneous biology. Annual Review of Nutrition. 1990;10:433

“Both oral and topical administration of GLA has been effective in reducing these as well as reducing redness and erythema due to UV radiation and improving healing of wounds.” Reference: Campbell KL. Fatty acid supplementation and skin disease. Advanced Clinical Dermatology. 1990;20(6):1475-1486

“At least one study has shown that topical applications of EFAs may also help control the damage caused by Ultraviolet-B.” Ando H, Ryu A, Hashimot A, Oka M, Ichihashi M. Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid lightens ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation of the skin. Reference: Archive of Dermatology Research. 1998;290:37538

“Topical application of oils rich in linoleic acid are highly beneficial to the skin. Using volunteers suffering EFA deficiencies, researchers found that topical application of sunflower seed oil (also rich in EFAs) markedly increased the skin's linoleic acid levels; that loss of water was highly decreased; and scaly lesions disappeared.” Reference: C Prottey, PJ Hartop, and M Press. Correction of the cutaneous manifestations of essential fatty acid deficiency in man by application of sunflower-seed oil to the skin. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 1975 64: 228-234.

“Research with topical applications revealed Borage Oil’s ability to provide the same level of improvement as it did when taken orally. Even environmentally damaged and habitually dry skin received renewed moisture and smoothness.” Reference: Gittleman, A.L. GLA: The “good” omega-6. Total Health for Longevity Magazine. September 2000.

“The properties contained in borage oil are so notable in enhancing skin that both the Journal of American Academy of Dermatology and the British Journal of Dermatology recognize its benefits.” Reference: Gittleman, A.L. GLA: The “good” omega-6. Total Health for Longevity Magazine. September 2000.

“EFAs actually increase cell resilience and moistens the fatty layer beneath the skin.” Gittleman, A.L. GLA: The “good” omega-6. Total Health for Longevity Magazine. September 2000.“Topical application along with oral supplementation may speed the effectiveness of EFAs. Eczema, psoriasis and acne all have been shown to respond to EFA supplementation.” Wright S, Burton JL.  Evening primrose seed oil improves atopic eczema.  Reference: Lancet ii:1120-1122, 1982.; Bittiner SB, Tucker WFG, Cartwright I, Bleehen SS.  A double blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fish oil in psoriasis. Reference: Lancet i:378-380, 1988.; and Downin DT, Stweart ME, Wertz PW, Strauss JS.  Essential fatty acids and acne.  J Am Acad Dermat 14:221-4, 1986.

Soy:
 
Soy was originally considered a waste product. It was used to rotate crops. Reference:Katz, Solomon H., "Food and Biocultural Evolution: A Model for the Investigation of Modern Nutritional Problems", Nutritional Anthropology, Alan R. Liss Inc., 1987, p. 50.
 
Soy has never attained GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) status. Soy protein did have approval for use as a binder in cardboard boxes, and this approval was allowed to continue, as researchers considered that migration of nitrites from the box into the food contents would be too small to constitute a cancer risk. FDA officials called for safety specifications and monitoring procedures before granting of GRAS status for food. These were never performed for soy. To this day, use of soy protein is codified as GRAS only for this limited industrial use as a cardboard binder. This means that soy protein must be subject to pre-market approval procedures each time manufacturers intend to use it as a food or add it to a food. Reference:FDA ref 72/104, Report FDABF GRAS - 258.

Soy is one of the most processed and genetically modified foods on the market. Soy also has one of the highest percentages of contamination. A purée of cooked soybeans could be precipitated with calcium sulfate or magnesium sulfate (plaster of Paris or Epsom salts) to make a smooth, pale curd - tofu or bean curd. Reference: Cinderella’s Dark Side, Sally Fallon & Mary G. Enig, Ph.D., Dec. 3, 2002.
 
Soy is a potent enzyme inhibitor. During digestion, soy inhibits trypsin, which is a necessary digestive enzyme. These trypsin inhibitors are large, tightly folded proteins that are not completely deactivated during ordinary cooking. They can produce serious gastric distress, reduced protein digestion and chronic deficiencies in amino acid uptake. In test animals, diets high in trypsin inhibitors cause enlargement and pathological conditions of the pancreas, including cancer. Reference:Rackis, Joseph J. et al., "The USDA trypsin inhibitor study. I. Background, objectives and procedural details", Qualification of Plant Foods in Human Nutrition, vol. 35, 1985.
 
Soybeans are high in phytic acid, which can block the uptake of essential minerals – calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, and especially zinc (zinc is utilized by the body more than any other mineral). Reference: Sally Fallon & Mary G. Enig, Ph.D.
 
Soy contains goitrogens – substances that depress thyroid function. Soy based formula can cause thyroid problems in babies. Soy stunts the growth and sexual development of male babies and children. The trypsin inhibitors and harmogglutinin in soy are growth inhibitors. Females who consumed soy milk as infants, have been shown to begin sexual development as early as 3 years old. Other sexual complications may develop later in life. References: Hagger, C. and J. Bachevalier, "Visual habit formation in 3-month-old monkeys (Macaca mulatta): reversal of sex difference following neonatal manipulations of androgen", Behavior and Brain Research (1991) 45:57-63.
 
References: Ross, R.K. et al., "Effect of in-utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol on age at onset of puberty and on post-pubertal hormone levels in boys", Canadian Medical Association Journal 128(10):1197-8, May 15, 1983.

 
Soybeans also contain haemagglutinin, a clot-promoting substance that causes red blood cells to clump together. Reference: Cinderella’s Dark Side, by Sally Fallon: & Mary G. Enig, Ph.D., Dec. 3, 2002.

Phytate reduction of zinc absorption has been demonstrated in numerous studies. These results are summarized in Leviton, Richard, Tofu, Tempeh, Miso and Other Soy foods: References: The 'Food of the Future' - How to Enjoy Its Spectacular Health Benefits, Keats Publishing, Inc., New Canaan, CT, USA, 1982, p. 1415.

Ross, R.K. et al., "Effect of in-utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol on age at onset of puberty and on post-pubertal hormone levels in boys", References: Canadian Medical Association Journal 128(10):1197-8, May 15, 1983.

Soy and Infants:

It is estimated that an infant exclusively fed soy formula receives the estrogenic equivalent (based of body weight) of at least 5 birth control pills per day. Reference: Irvine, C. et al., "The Potential Adverse Effects of Soybean Phytoestrogens in Infant Feeding", New Zealand Medical Journal May 24, 1995, p. 318.

…18% higher incidence in autoimmune thyroid disease in infants who are fed soy
formula. Reference: J Am Coll Nutr 1990, Apr; 9(2): 164-167

[Dietary fat] is a required nutrient for an infant's brain and nerve development. Compared to breast-fed infants, infants who were fed hydrolyzed soy (processed) protein showed significant reduced growth in weight and length, as well as total blood protein Reference: Acta Paediatr Suppl, Sept. 1994; 402: 100-104, and Eur J Clin Nutr, Sept. 1995; 49 Suppl 1: S26-38

Soy-based infant products often contain double the amount of protein supplied by mother's milk. (This is not good - the baby is supposed to get fats, not excessive protein.) Soy formula is clearly not a proper "substitute" Reference: Adv Exp Med Biol, 1991; 289: 389-402
 
Soy and Sex:
 
Celibate monks living in monasteries and leading a vegetarian lifestyle find soy foods quite helpful because they dampen libido. Reference: Cinderella’s Dark Side, Sally Fallon & Mary G. Enig, Ph.D., Dec. 3, 2002.
 
Sugar: (see Carbohydrates)
 
High sugar intake, excessive insulin production and excess glucose in the body can react with proteins in a process called glycation. These sugar damaged proteins cause premature ageing of many tissues (including collagen in the skin) and lead to joint problems, loss of energy, stiffness, difficulties in weight control and many other unwelcome problems. Reference: New York Academy of Sciences, BPDG Meeting, January 29, 2002, “AGEing - Non-Enzymatic Glycation and Carbonyl Stress,”Organizers: Marla Weetall, Ph.D., Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research: Robert deGroof, Ph.D., Alteon Inc.

8. Hospital patients not allowed more than 7 tsp sugar per hour; Americans told by U.S. government [food pyramid] and nutritionists to eat up to 20 tsp sugar at each meal: breakfast, lunch, and dinner! Reference: Body Fluids and Electrolytes, pgs: 71-72.

Fructose (fruit sugar):
 
Humans can’t digest the fructose of more than 2 pieces of fruit a day: Reference: Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach, pg. 404. Dawn B. Marks, Allan D. Marks, Colleen M. Smith, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, August, 1996, ISBN: 068305595X
 
Sweeteners:
 
Methanol(and other ingredients ending in “nol”) = wood alcohol – very dangerous poison to the human body (The main ingredient of Aspartame).

The lists of reported negative effects from consumption of aspartame are too many and too long to include here. A good source for this information currently is: http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/suffer.faq. Or request a copy of the paper (including references), Reference: “Reported Aspartame Toxicity Effects”, from the web site listed above.

Areas reported to be effected by Aspartame consumption:
Eye
Ear
Neurological
Psychologic-Psychiatric
Chest
Gastrointestinal
Skin and Allergies
Endocrine and Metabolic
And more…

Reports in scientific literature of aspartame-caused toxicity reactions: Blumenthal (1997), Drake (1986), Johns (1986), Lipton (1989), McCauliffe (1991), Novick (1985), Watts (1991), Walton (1986, 1988), and Wurtman (1985).
Note: (Nutra-Sweet + MSG = Brain damage in children = Behavior disorders = crime= perceived control necessity = totalitarian surveillance and control…) Reference: A study by Dr. John Olney, professor of neuropathology and psychiatry, Washington School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.
 
Sugar alcohol (also known as polyols) comes from fruit. They are used as sweeteners and bulking agents in processed foods. They provide _ to 1/3 less calories than sugar.

Sugar Alcohols:
Mannitol     Sorbitol     Xylitol      Lactitol     Isomalt
Maltitol     Hydrogenated Starch Hydrolysates (HSH)

Negative effects of sugar alcohol consumption (in large amounts):
Bloating
Diarrhea
Weight gain
Can raise blood sugar
Reference: Yale-New Haven Hospital, 20 York St., New Haven CT 06510-3202, 1999-2002.

Sucralose (Sold as Splenda™):

Sucralose is produced by chlorinating sugar (sucrose). This involves chemically changing the structure of the sugar molecules by substituting three chlorine atoms for three hydroxyl groups.

Possible negative effects of Sucralose (results from controlled studies on rats):
Shrunken thymus glands (up to 40% shrinkage)
Enlarged liver and kidneys.
Atrophy of lymph follicles in the spleen and thymus
Increased cecal weight
Reduced growth rate
Decreased red blood cell count
Hyperplasia of the pelvis
Extension of the pregnancy period
Aborted pregnancy
Decreased fetal body weights and placental weights
Diarrhea

[Toxicologist Judith] Bellin reviewed studies on rats starved under experimental conditions, and concluded that their growth rate could be reduced by as much as a third without the thymus losing a significant amount of weight (less than 7 percent). The changes were much more marked in rats fed on sucralose. While the animals' growth rate was reduced by between 7 and 20 percent, their thymuses shrank by as much as 40 percent. Reference: New Scientist 23 Nov 1991, pg 13.
 
Syndrome X:

- Central obesity (excessive fat tissue in the abdominal region – spare tire).
- Glucose intolerance.
- Hyperlipidemia -- primarily high triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol.
- High blood pressure.

Syndrome X is not a new disease, but a new term for a cluster of symptoms that can include: insulin resistance (the inability to properly deal with dietary carbohydrates and sugars), abnormal blood fats (such as elevated triglycerides), obesity, and high blood pressure. Reference: Syndrome X, The Complete Nutritional Program to Prevent and Reverse Insulin Resistance, Jack Challem, The Nutrition Reporter™, Burt Berkson, M.D., Ph.D., Melissa Diane Smith, nutrition counselor, Publication Date: January 14, 2000

 

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